As for how dirty it can get before they drink it, horses drink out of mud puddles! But, we try to do better for them than that.
I have a 75 gallon tank out in the pasture, under some high tree limbs for two QHs. I used to keep it full to the top, but I don't these days, mosly because the well can't take it. Texas drank out of a three gallon bucket, stuck up in a small stall last winter. I went down to feed him 4 times a day and took water in buckets. But, he survived and came out of the sickness that he was in when I got him. Now, he's much better off. When Misty came along, she would always slosh the surface before drinking because she was used to a muddy pond full of algae. This summer, we had to go to the creek and fill barrels for them. Anyway, what you're doing sounds ok. My only suggestion would be to put it on some boards or concrete blocks to get it farther from the floor.