And scoring for SJ is;
rail down 4 penalties (only if said rail decreases the size of the jump)
1st and 2nd refusal 4 penalties
3rd refusal elimination
Exceed time allowed; 1 penalty per second or part thereof
...I don't know if you can be eliminated for being excessively slow, I never have!
Fall of rider or horse; elimination
Dressage scoring is given a mark out of 10 per movement, which can be multiplied (it's called a coefficient) for things like circles where the quality of the gait and the correctness of the figure are both factors in the score. Then (in eventing) they take the total possible marks, and subtract the total marks achieved, to gain a penalty score. In pure dressage, they take the total marks achieved and the total possible marks, and calculate the percentage score according to the total possible marks. For example, if you score 9's for every single movement, and there are 10 movements, you have a score of 90 out of 100 - or 90% in other words!