I've got several different pistols in the gun safe, and carry different ones depending on the situation.
I love the .45 acp, and carry it in urban areas because it doesn't over penetrate and lacks the velocity and energy necessary to penetrate several walls in a home, yet has the caliber necessary to provide a large a wound channel in something the size of a human target. This lack of "over penetration" made it a good choice for trench warfare in world war one where many men were confined in a close closed area.
My .44 mag, can shoot through several walls and this makes it less desirable in urban areas, but this extra energy and the ability to penetrate deeply, along with enough velocity to get the bullet to expand, makes it a much better choice for large game than a .38 special or .45 acp. The .357 mag, on the other hand, wouldn't be a bad choice for many of the same reasons, but lacks caliber.
As far as the 5.56 or .223, the army uses non-expanding ammo. This round penetrates, but doesn't leave as large a wound channel as the larger calibers. The military wanted it to wound, as it takes more men to support the wounded than it does the dead.
Most pistol calibers don't have the velocity to get reliable expansion, thus, they need large caliber. Even if a .38 expands, it seldom gets to the size that a .45 starts at.
MAKE BIG HOLES!
For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.