There are certainly front versus hind pattern shoes, whether keg (pre-manufactured) or handmade.
As already shared, there are also a few "compromise" patterns intended to be used on either end of the horse. Farriers call these "frinds". They're not a front or a hind... they're a frind.
St. Croix lights are an example. The frind shoe is popular with farriers who have a preference for cold shoeing or are less skilled in the forge.
As previously shared, the difference between a front and hind pattern shoe is due to the difference in how a horses front feet are shaped as compared to the hind feet.
The hinds will tend to be more "pointy" at the toe with the heel quarter radius farther back relative to the middle of the shoe.
The fronts are more rounded or oval shaped at the toe and will have the radius change occur closer to the center of the foot (ideally).
The front and hind hooves are shaped different because the coffin bone inside that hoof is different. The difference is a consequence of limb function... support (fronts) versus propulsion (hinds). Remember... horses are, for the most part, rear wheel drive.
Now here's the fun part.
What is lesser known is that there are also right and left patterned shoes!
In fact, whether handmade or keg, almost all properly shaped horseshoes will have a front right, front left, hind right and hind left pattern. They are not interchangeable.
Why is this?
Because the hoof wall is typically straighter on the medial side than the lateral side. The lateral side (outside) will usually be more rounded or bolder. This difference in medial/lateral shape is a consequence of how a horse loads.
Yep, it all goes back to that bio-mechanics thing.
Even those keg shoes that are not sold in right/left patterns should be shaped to reflect that difference in the feet. The right/left patterns are more visually obvious in front feet than in the hinds. Keg shoes sold in right/left patterns will often have a manufacturers stamp on the outside branch of the shoe to remind the farrier which side is which.
If the shoes are not sold/marked as right or left patterns (many aren't), some farriers will use a punch to create a small dot on the lateral branch of the right shoe. Again, this helps to remind the farrier which is which when he's finished shaping and carries the shoes back to the horse.
I mark my shoes for left/right (actually just the right shoe) and add a punched dot each time I reset a pair of shoes. That helps me remember six weeks later how many times, if any, I've reset those same shoes. One dot means I put them on new at my last visit. Two dots, I've reset the same shoes once; three dots they've been reset twice and it's almost certainly time for new shoes. I rarely get two resets out of a pair of steel shoes. I never reset aluminum.
So... does some of this information give you pause to wonder at just what your farrier is doing when he shoes your horse? Does he shape the shoes with front/hind/left/right patterns in mind or does he just nail 'em on cold and rasp the foot down to match the pre-manufactured shape?
Is he shaping the shoes to fit the foot, or is he shaping the foot to fit the shoe?
More to the point, does he/she know or even care about the difference?
Your horse certainly does!