I am a pro-barefoot type of person, but in this case, just gut feeling if it were my horse, I would go with shoes and wedge pads to get his palamar angles back to a normal angle.
Barefoot is great and I'm all for it, but it's like telling someone in a wheel chair that they should be out jogging. Jogging is healthy and great but if you can't even walk....... You should worry about walking before you take up jogging.
I don't know if that is even a good analogy, but it's the best I could come up with at the moment.
I dunno. It's a tough call. But I think getting the proper bone alignment is of utmost importance at this moment in time. That could be the root of all his troubles. Or perhaps not, but it's the first and most obvious thing to try. Get him sound and comfortable and then, in the future, you could always look into barefoot again.
I keep and ride my horses barefoot and so do many of my friends. Barefoot is generally the best way to keep a horse, in my opinion. So I am a firm believer that barefoot did NOT cause this....horses were born to be barefoot. HOWEVER, right now I think he could be helped best by shoes and wedge pads to get his bones aligned. That is of more concern right now than following a "barefoot ideal."
Like others said, for a navicular horse with narrow, contracted feet and high heels, they could benefit from barefoot. But your guy has the opposite problem, feet that are too low (at least on radiographic image). (From the photos, his feet actually look pretty good to me.)
So I don't know what it's worth, I am a layman and not a vet, but that's my humble opinion. If he were mine, I would go with shoes with a wedge pad and shoes that enable break-over.