Can someone simply explain the different types of clips that can come on shoes, their uses and all that?
Toe clips, quarter clips, and whatever other clips! Lol
Go to the UK and you'll notice that a large percentage of shoes are installed with toe clips on the fronts and side clips on the hinds. It's nearly a tradition and a consequence of their schooling process.
Toe clips are intended to prevent nail shearing. Horses paw. That pawing drives the shoe back and can loosen or even shear the nails holding it in place.
Quarter clips (often used on fronts) and side clips (often used on hinds) prevent nail shear and help to add structural support to the hoof capsule. They are a good alternative to toe clips on a horse with dorsal/palmar distortion (run-forward) when you want to more easily set the shoe back off the toe a bit.
A farrier may "pull" one or more clips to stabilize a compromised hoof capsule. Examples would include a hoof damaged due to trauma or intentional resection.
There's an axiom among farriers that a clip has as much holding power as two nails. It's not entirely true but I understand the intent.
Pre-manufactured shoes (keg shoes) can be purchased with or without clips. A lot of farriers will forge their own clips. It's a matter of tradition, pride in their work and the ability to put the clips where they'll do the most good.
Clips make it easier to keep the shoe centered and "in-place" when nailing the shoe to the horses foot. In my experience, clips reduce the risk of lost shoes.
A quality fit clip should be burned or cut into the hoof capsule so that it lays flush with the wall. This assures a more correct shoe fit, better nail placement and reduces the risk of the owner cutting their hand when they pick up a foot for maintenance. It also looks nicer.
The ability to "pull' and properly fit clips is a basic skill that every farrier should possess.