I would do a soak for thrush. It does look like there may be an underlying thrush problem there.
You can try: organic apple cider vinegar, white lightning, oxine are some effective soaks IMO. I find commercial products and even Pete's Goo is not enough at times when its been a chronic problem. Suggestions from healthyhoof
I would not put shoes back on him, this is not solving anything. There is an underlying reason as to why he is still sore barefoot. I would treat for thrush as directed in the above link for one of the products and if there is still a problem with soreness I would invest in hoof boots and pads. I prefer the Easycare line for this reason - there is a varying line of pads from soft to firm and to add varying frog support/pressure depending on the horses needs. You can speak to your hoof care provider about the right combination for your horse. Also, if he is inside at night ... get him turned out full time to move more (with boots of course if he is uncomfortable) and get him moving more and landing heel first to devlop the structures in the foot.