I think the answer to the question of barefoot or shod is much deeper than what can be answered in just a few paragraphs. There's much to consider.
But here's my opinion anyhow.
I prefer barefoot, and the hoof needs to be conditioned to the terrain you want to ride on. And taking into consideration a few things will determine how long it will take to get those hooves into their peak shape. It most likely won't be next week, sometimes it can take over a year to reach that point. It takes time, so patience AND consistency is required.
If you had a barefoot horse that is kept on soft pasture, and you generally ride on soft fields or trails, you can't expect the horse to handle rocky trails without being sore. That's just expecting too much. The hoof needs to build up to handle that type of terrain. And it also needs consistent movement on that type of ground, as in more than once a week. BUT, you can't let the horse get sore on that type of ground either, you need to quit before the hooves get sore and the horse is in pain for days on end.
I prefer to listen to the advice of those with WAY more experience than I. And one comment I will always remember from my barefoot, "teacher", is that he noticed the hoof will adapt to the situation it's in most often. And horses that were in rocky terrain adapted to the point that they grew fast enough to keep up with the wear from all the rocks, he also noticed that the soles and hoof walls became MUCH thicker. So if you want a horse to be a, "rock cruncher', then you need to be riding on rocky terrain consistently. But again, you have to give the hoof enough time to adapt without making the horse sore.
Anyway....that's my two pence.
Truth passes through three stages. First it is ridiculed. Second it is violently opposed. Third it is accepted as self evident.