Your best bet is to buy a few older mares with performance records or foals that are already showing.
Breeders sometimes sell older mares after retaining a couple of the fillies . Hopefully bred ones 13-20 YOs so you can still get a few foals from them. Then perhaps you can raise and campaign your own stallion.
Al Marah arabians sells every mare after she is 12.
You also need to sell the foals as early as possible. This cuts your expenses and brings in cash.
Getting established is going to be expensive.
If I were starting over the first thing I would do would buy or lease the farm. No need to pay for boarding and you can cut down on expenses buy raising your own hay.
Breeders sell foals if you are going to wait 9 years to get one to the level you want before breeding another then you will never get established.
You also need to be brutal about culling any mare that does not produce or cannot be used in the program. No matter how attached you are to them. Shalom
This is what I was thinking, and I'm surprised it wasn't a more popular idea.
I'm certainly not a breeder, but I am interested in taking the same path as you. (e.g. Get a good education in this field and try to establish a sound business with horses worth breeding.) And what dbarbians said is the wise choice. Buy older mares that have a previous show record, or even a proven broodmare that puts her stamp on her foals and maybe doesn't have a show record, but consistently produces nice, athletic foals. There is no problem with having a starting point, as not everyone can afford international dressage quality warmbloods. Doesn't mean you start out with a different breed and cross until you have a decent horse. You have to spend the money it takes to get some quality, and sometimes it takes a bit of luck and being at the right place at the right time, or even having the right friends.
My breed is a different breed (by this I mean not a sport horse), but I will outline what I plan to do. I started out with a younger mare of that breed, 4 years old, and we broke her to ride, and now she is being trained to drive. Later we got an 17 year old mare, registered foundation mare, in foal to a good quality stallion. I got my filly, and am hoping for her to grow up to be a nice driving horse, and maybe some day a broodmare. (But that is long ahead of us.) I am looking at another proven broodmare, the size I want with new bloodlines that not a lot have. When we can see it as a viable option, we plan to find a very good quality stallion of their breed. (Stallions that have offspring on the ground, and produce outstanding foals that have a good market.) These mares all will be trained to drive and work at the farm, and hopefully go to some shows and events for a bit of publicity. I want to cross them with something still retaining the heavy-boned trademark of their breed, but adding some refinement, height, and stamina. Weanlings would be up for sale, but we might retain one out of the crop to begin training and show what they can do.
I live on 240 acres so their are no boarding fees involved and we can grow most of our own hay, and for the level of training they need we can teach them the basics, and we also have good trainers who can get our horses to where they need to be in their training. I know plenty of breeders who have been very willing to give me advice throughout the raising of my first foal. I won't be going from rags to riches, but I hope within 10 years to have something up and running, and as I progress I hope to put my own 'stamp' on my horses, and be a known producer of quality.
As long as you get a real idea of the costs and losses of horse breeding, and are realistic, you can put forward realistic goals that can be accomplished.