It looks like a very strange spoon bit. Maybe an antique spoon bit with the extra rings and snaffle part for the check rein. Not sure if that's the right name, but for the "reins" that go from the bit up to the side of the browband, and back down to the harness.
It's an antique scissor driving bit. Possibly manufactured by August Buermann. The dates for it that I found varied greatly from the late 1800s to the mid-1900s. Here are a couple more pictures of it that I found:
This is a JIC (or Jay-Eye-See) bit. It's a pretty common bit, though a strange looking thing. They were sold, among other places, via the old Sears-Roebuck catalog. I'm guessing I have one for sale if anyone is interested.
I've heard the bit was associated with J.I. Case (of farm implement fame) who, I guess, also owned a famous trotting horse back in the day named...Jay Eye See!
Here's an ad for the bit (not sure where it appeared):