Begin with your horse haltered with a sturdy lead rope snapped to the ring on the underside of the halter
Standing on the left hand side (near side) of the horse hold the lead rope about 8 inches from the snap with your right hand.
Hold the end of the lead rope folded to fit comfortably in your left hand. Hold around the middle of the folds so that there are no loops around your hand.
Stand at the horse's shoulder.
Cue your horse to walk with a slight forward motion of your right hand (not a tug or pull) on the lead rope. Say 'walk' or 'come' or whatever word you choose to use consistently. Walk forward yourself.
If your horse doesn't understand how to walk forward at your cue, you can try carrying a long whip that is between 36 to 40 inches long , such as a dressage whip. Hold the whip in your left hand with the folded rope. Tap the horse gently on the top of his croup and ask him to 'walk'.
Stop by asking him to 'whoa' (or stop-whatever word you choose), stopping yourself and pulling lightly on the lead rope. He should stop and stand beside you, and not swing out, or try to face you.
To ask your horse to trot increase the distance between your hand and the halter to at least a foot so that you don't restrict his head (which can affect his gaits-especially important if your vet is trying to see lameness or you are in the show ring).
Cue with the forward motion of the lead rope as you did when walking, tapping his croup with the whip and asking him to 'trot' while jogging forward yourself.
Ask your horse to back up by turning around to face him. Take the lead rope in your left hand, and with your right hand point at or press on the horse's left shoulder. Ask him to 'back' and pull down and back slightly with the lead rope.
Step forward yourself to stay with your horse as he steps back.
Don't try to haul your horse along. The harder you pull, the more resistant he may become. He should be taught to walk and trot with you on cue without any pulling.
Don't get left behind, but stay at your horse's shoulder.
To get your horse to move forward if you don't have a whip, try pulling him slightly to the right so that he has to take a step with his left fore foot to re-balance. Pull him gently back towards you so he then has to move his right foot forward to again re-balance. Sometimes this is enough to 'unstick' a reluctant horse.
Choose lead ropes of a thickness comfortable for your hands. Shanks of flat leather or webbing can be more difficult to handle although some people may prefer them.
Although it is traditional to lead on the left side, you should be able to lead from the right (off side) as well.
Hope this helps,
Never mind the whales,
SAVE THE COWBOYS