09-08-2010, 01:17 AM
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Basically I teach them the same as stopping any other time. I teach a horse to yield to direct pressure in a number of ways, including halter pressure. Then I teach them to yield to implied pressure - bodylanguage, waving rope or whip, voice - and back up that implied pressure with direct if/when necessary. Only once they're reliable and soft in yielding to implied pressure will I begin to ask them to do it gradually further away from me.
So... Teaching stop or back, for my cues, I use gentle backwards pressure on the leadrope/halter & fingertip pressure on their chest or nose. Implied pressure includes stopping & backing up myself, if I'm walking beside them, saying 'stand' or 'back, back', raising my hand in a stop signal, waving my finger at them. To back up the implied cues if needed, I progress to wiggling the rope(I DON'T go as far has hitting them under the jaw with the snap BTW) or waving the whip out in front of them. I start gently/without touching, but will build the pressure or progress to allowing them to run into the pressure of the rope/stick if they don't respond to lesser cues.
Only when they're reliable & soft at responding to my early cues do I start to ask them to do it at a distance.