It was absolutely a respect issue. He showed you in the most demonstrative way he could that he did not respect you.
You did fine. But, if you were not hurt, I think you should have done more -- like -- pushed his butt around, pushed his shoulder over, tapped his butt again and demanded that he get over fast and far.
If you 'over-do corrections, you don't have to do very many of them.
The other thing you should do is pay more attention to any horse's 'body language'. I really doubt that he has not shown disrespect in the past. Little things like an ear back, a hesitation to respond, flipping or tossing a nose at you, a switch of a tail, shifting weight into the foot you are asking him to move. There are dozens of little things, that if not corrected early and quickly, embolden a horse to do more significant things like the kick you got today.