OK, basically agree with below posts & there are numerous ways & cues to teach your horse to back up(or whatever you want). I personally do like to teach them to back up to a waggling finger/rope, so you can ask for it from a distance, in different positions, etc. I did start out learning to train with Parelli principles(many moons ago) & I think that's what 'bandwagon' it sounds like you're on? So I'll give you my take on what you wrote...
First thing, I would first be teaching him to yield to actual direct pressure, from leadrope/halter, fingertips, pushing with the end of the stick, etc. Get him soft & reliable about moving away from that first.
Don't forget to make the most of bodylanguage though, as that's very important, especially as you want to teach him to respond to that without physical pressure. Use assertive & focussed bodylanguage when you're asking for something & don't forget to 'switch it off' & relax yourself when you get it, or you're not asking.
He just tries to turn away from the pressure and walk the other way or turn around and of course I try to close that "door" but and get him back but he just keeps going for that option
As someone else suggested, start out with him standing beside a fence or such, to remove at least one of the 'wrong' options. Make it as easy as possible for him to get it Right & reduce likelihood of Wrong.
So it sounds like you're saying you can get him to take a step or 2 back, but he keeps trying other behaviours? You need to instantly reinforce the behaviour you want, by quitting the pressure, quitting asking. Let him know that it works, even if you only got one step. Practice that a number of times before asking for a little more. Build gradually on success. Don't ask for too much to begin with.
He walks forward until he's up next to me and then of course I have to back up, in which he follows me when I do that
If you haven't specifically invited him into your space or asked him to follow you, you
should be making him
yield, never the other way round. If he doesn't yet understand what you're working on, forget it & use whatever he does understand to make him move.
I want to be able to stand still and make him back so I did the exercise where you wiggle the lead rope, but he was very unresponsive to that so I wiggled harder and harder unitl it was so hard that the clip was smacking him in the jaw
Firstly, let me say I agree with the *principle* of 'being as soft as possible but as firm as necessary'. BUT I have found 'firmness' past the level of mild discomfort is rarely necessary if you're clear enough about what you're teaching. And getting heavy handed as the method of teaching is rather like getting LOUDER because someone doesn't understand your language.
So... instead of just getting louder, find ways of making it easier for your horse to understand what you're asking. Should be easy if he's already learned to yield to your direct pressure & bodylanguage - wiggle your finger/rope GENTLY and back it up with your bodylanguage, and if/when necessary, direct pressure on his nose/chest.
I finally go thim to take half to one step back, but I kept having to use the same pressure of getting the clip to smack him in the jaw, but after that one step he just tried to turn again.
Repetition is as important as timing in linking associations. The more you reinforce the horse for whatever he can give, the more he'll be likely to give it. But it's got to work for him - ie the pressure stops. Instantly.
You don't keep asking & trying to get him to do more, or he'll just keep trying other things to stop you hassling him.
The other thing about going overboard & using pain to train is that it becomes emotional, stressful, the horse may panic or shut down, but whatever level, you've lost at least some focus on what you're asking & are likely getting more unthinking, fearful reactions than conscious responses. Meaning that aside from other effects, the desired lesson will be harder for the horse to learn & his association with the request will be of pain/fear.
So... I'd save any heavyhanded punishment for emergencies or occasions where it's necessary to back up an *ignored & known* cue.
No in the 2 and half weeks I've had him he's lost all his training it seems like....
So he understood how to softly yield backwards to a wiggling rope? It sounds like he didn't lose it, just never learned it. If that's incorrect & there are other things he was doing well *with you* & now won't, it sounds like he hasn't lost his training, but he is training you effectively.