Some will test you continuously.....and this I will perpetually expect from Tino. Like Troy he is just one of those horses who do not want to give up their alpha status :)
Since Troy is broke, then why don't you try a riding crop. Of course try it from the ground first. By that I mean try holding one as often as you can while you are working with him. Lead him and if he is not acting "quite" right give him a tap....and see how he reacts. Rub it all over him body & face while talking gently to him. If you longe him on a line, then move him out with a crop in your hand. Try getting him very used to seeing it, and associating it with doing what he is asked. He should respect it & not fear it.
Tino is stunning too.....and deep down that is probably 30% of the reason we couldn't give up on him. He is beautiful & smart......just too much attitude at times
A month or so ago I did a dumb thing......and I knew it was dumb when I did it. He and my mare had big sores in their mouths....and after a couple vet visits we found out it was from the barley hay. The quills got stuck in the soft tissue of their mouths & infected. The vet had to dig out all the quills. But at the time we didn't know what was causing them.....and since he was saddle broke so recently I didn't want to wait long before getting on him again. I decided against common sense to use just a halter & reins. I could sense he was annoyed at having his face pulled when I wanted turns.....and right after our little foal ran past the round pen, up he went...with me on him. I did an emergency dismount & luckily landed square on my feet....but boy was I ticked off. I made him canter around that round pen for 5 minutes straight. Next time he pulls that on me I will yank that gorgeous face to my knee before he can take another breath. He just caught me off guard, and at the time it made the most sense to get the heck off of there
The very best of luck to you Keith, Troy & famiily....