No discipline bashing allowed, and please try to be open minded, and leave your discipline-centric attitude at the door.
Hollow, over arched back or “duck butt” or “porno butt”
Most often seen in female riders, rarely or never seen in men because the root cause lies in women’s skeletal structure. The way a woman’s pelvis articulates with the spine predisposes women to the hollow backed posture, and most female riders must relearn posture and create a new habit of bringing their seat bones underneath them and relaxing the small of their back. Women who have participated in another sport that requires a flat, relaxed back and pelvis tucked under tend to have a much easier time with this. I struggled with this fault mightily as a junior rider. All the exhortations of instructors to “stretch up”, “straighten my back” or “sit up tall” just made me throw my shoulders back more, exacerbating the problem and making me stiffer and less functional. The first part of the fix for me was riding racehorses; I stopped trying to look the photos in the George Morris book and just did what worked, and I also gained rock hard abs. Being able to control your abdominals is a great help in the fix for this fault. The second part of the fix was working with a dressage instructor who helped me pay attention to my seat bones, bring them underneath rather than behind me and create a new muscle memory. Riding a working trot sitting and a canter in full seat provides instant feedback if you relapse into the hollow back habit. As soon as your seat bones point backwards or your pelvis slides back, you lose the following seat and at the canter, begin to pump with your upper body to compensate.
This particular fault is most common in hunter riders because most hunter riders spend most of their time out of the saddle in two-point. Not ever having to ride a full, following seat at the canter or working trot allows the fault to persist. Hollow back can lock your hip joint, preventing you from folding correctly in the air, and can contribute to jumping ahead and lying on the neck. If a hunter rider can still open and close their hip with the horse’s thrust, as some can, then the hollow back can be considered more of a mannerism than a flaw. In any discipline that requires a following seat, it’s a serious flaw, both on the flat and over fences.
Pivoting on knee
Caused by incorrect distribution of grip and contact in the lower leg. If grip is centered on the knee, it allows the knee to act as a fulcrum, sending the lower leg back and the rider’s torso forward. I usually demonstrated this to students by holding their stirrup and swinging their leg back and forth, and then had them increase the grip down through the inside of their leg until it became difficult for me to move the leg. I used the analogy of nailing a board to a wall: if you put one nail in one end of a board, the board can swing back and forth. Putting a second nail in the board further down secures it. “Put another nail in the board” was how I encouraged students to put their entire lower leg on the horse.
Some riders of my generation were taught the old style cavalry seat, which encouraged gripping and pivoting with the knee. Other culprits in this habit are saddles that are too small or with too short a flap that force the knee in and lower leg off; incorrectly placed knee blocks or over-reliance on knee rolls and knee blocks. Riding a slab sided horse or one that’s too small or slight for the rider’s leg also make it very hard to distribute contact correctly through the lower leg.
A serious flaw because it impacts the rider’s security, and also because it’s sometimes accompanied by lying on the neck and over weighting the horse’s front end in the air.
Supervised work without stirrups with constant feedback on position helps; securing the stirrup to the girth with a piece of baling twine can be a huge help in letting the student feel what correct lower leg contact is like. (Appropriate for jumping ONLY over obstacles with standards and jump cups; not recommended for jumping solid obstacles.)
Open knee angle or lying on the neck
Both caused by the horse’s motion acting on incorrect design of position/locked or stiff joints. Very common in intermediate riders; because of the initial emphasis placed on developing a secure lower leg. The time spent riding in two point and riding without stirrups to develop the lower leg often has the unintended and undesirable side effect of locking or freezing the rider’s knee and hip. If the knee and hip aren’t acting correctly as shock absorbers, the motion of the horse’s jump then throws the rider’s entire body forward onto the horse’s neck. The challenge for the instructor, once the lower leg is established, is to make sure the knee and hip are working correctly. Make sure that when you observe the rider trotting in two point, that you see the knee and hip open and close slightly as the horse moves. If no motion travels past a specific joint, that joint is locked. One exercise that helps is the “rider’s pushup.” Have the rider start in a correct, balanced two point, and without resting hands on the neck, bend knee and hip until the rider’s chest touches the horse’s neck, then open the knee and hip angle and come back up into two point. Practice at the walk, trot and canter (if a steady, unflappable school horse is available.)
Working without stirrups over low fences makes it harder for the rider to brace and lock joints, and helps develop the feel of the joints working correctly.
This flaw can also been seen as a deliberate mannerism in hunter riders, whom are trying to make it look as if the horse is *so* thrusty and scopy that they can’t maintain their position.
Affects the rider’s security, and the ability to react quickly upon landing. Also may unnecessarily weight the horse’s front end in the air; though when done deliberately and consistently, horses seem to adapt and continue to use their front ends well.
More common in new and/or nervous riders, who actively move their bodies forward rather than waiting for the horse’s motion to close their angles. The solution is work over lots of small fences without stirrups; learning to focus their eye on the horizon rather than on the fence and lots of confidence building experience. Lunging over small fences with the rider’s eyes focused on a distant point, or in tough cases, with eyes closed, may be helpful.
The open knee angle/lying on the neck fault is often misdiagnosed as jumping ahead, because the snapshot in the air looks similar; but the “jumping ahead” rider has actually moved before the horse’s thrust has pushed him; while the “lying on the neck” rider has waited for the horse, but the locked or stiff joints causes the horse’s thrust to push the rider onto the neck rather than closing their hip and knee angle.
A very serious flaw, because it dramatically unbalances the horse, suddenly weighting the horse’s front end right at take-off. If the habit persists; the horse will react by either chipping in (adding a tiny stride right at take off) or refusing.
Looking forward to your comments and additions!