All horses will do this IF the handler does not know what they are doing. I can show you horse after horse, that have NEVER missed a meal, and they would all within less than a week, know that you could be run over with no consequences, and do exactly what this horse is doing now.
Walk like you own the place, no slouching, and make firm eye contact too. You need to almost puff yourself up, widen shoulders and walk like you own the world.
As for you popping with whip to no avail? That was because that inner core of you, was telegraphing weak. Horses, when they battle will continue to do it until one says "you win", but I have seen the backing up and kicking out go on for several minutes. And that is something a humans can't hold up to.
When you get after a horse that is behaving like this, it has to be a HCTJM!!!! That means you are determined to eat that horse alive. And I would NOT go at face ever. Low on legs, rump, side, but not ever at face. Eyes can NOT be fixed if you blind one.
We have a mare in barn that loves to pin ears and snake head at you...does it when walk by or even looking at her. She is not like that when you open door, and meets you with ears up though.
Just out of curiosity, I stood outside her stall and when she gave me the snake eyes...I simply got mad in my mind...the type that if you were a cartoon character your ears would have steam coming out of them. And that was all I did, intense eyes by widening them, and simply mad in my mind.
You could actually see her get concerned, change her attitude, and melt into a meek horse. I didn't say one word either, or raise one hand.
Think about the maddest you have ever been, how you walked, how you projected yourself, and then use that same feeling when dealing with this horse.
And don't do talking, except to tell horse to MOVE...low voice too, as higher registers signal you are pushover, and no soothing or patting or trying to be his friend.
It is all in your attitude.
However, that said...and understand this is not to you OP, as your horse is not like the ones I am talking about here now.
There are some horses, few but some. That simply cannot handle the mental stress of a very firm hand...in that your whole approach has to be different. A good horseman/woman learns to know the difference.
Horses make me a better person.