Here's my .02 worth....
Socks...are you riding with breeches and tall boots?
Then yes, it can
make a huge difference in fit if your boots are "snug" fitting...
In winter cold, I layered stretch silk socks, then a thin cotton sock followed by a thin wool sock and topped off by a knee-high stocking so all those layers have one covering to slip inside a boot. Layering adds warmth of air trapped.
If you are riding with paddock boots or low boots in a English saddle then use thicker knee socks so your inner calf not be pinched by the stirrup leather...ouch.
If you wear half-chaps over breeches or pants/jeans then the chaps do the protecting of the leg and a comfortable sock is needed that will protect you from chafing on the pant inside seam...
Breeches/jods are made special with a extra layer of material, synthetic or real leather patch to protect your inner leg from rubs, raw and sore skin occurring.
If you ride western then either wear western jeans made for riding which have no inside seam, and
or invest in high knee-socks cause you still get rubs from leg movement in a western saddle too.
Bottom line is yes, wear higher socks like a knee sock to protect your legs from nasty pinches and bruises that indeed hurt!
As for gloves...
You ride with a gently closed hand and fingers so reins should not
be being pulled through.
If your hands perspire a lot then reins can become slippery, gloves can help reduce slippery.
If you have a horse who hangs on the reins and your arms, gloves can give a bit of cushioning so a rein that is not "finished" with a softer edge not dig into your finger skin.
I myself ride with laced or plaited reins if not wearing gloves as lacing/plaiting of reins I find makes a big difference in a horse being able to pull reins through my fingers and less loss of rein occurs when grip is on my side if needed.
ride in gloves in summer cause my hands sweat, gloves offer me grip but also able to feel and communicate consistently with my riding partner.
I ride in leather gloves or a knit back with goatskin palm glove near always.
I do not use those stretchy knit pimple palmed things as they stretch to much for my liking but many do and enjoy them.
For a beginner rider...if you need to protect your hands from wear & tear, wear gloves always..it truly helps when interacting with horses no matter the chore at hand.
Socks...if riding English it would be knee-socks always for me even under jeans to protect from seam rubs and raw skin occurring.
If breeches, then if in my tall boots it is a short sock and knee-highs so boots slip on as my boots are not zippered but high pull-on, form fitting customs.
That's my take on the gloves and socks dilemma.