Thank you. I am now reading the on-line version of Parley J. Paskett’s 1986 “Wild Mustang” book: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/v...=usupress_pubs
And I am also reading Andrew Smith’s 1987 review of “Wild Horses of the Great Basin: Social Competition andPopulation Size” by Joel Berge. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...1988.tb04172.x
“The Secret Lives of Horses: Long-term observations of wild equines reveal a host of unexpected behaviors” By Wendy Williams on May 1, 2017 https://www.scientificamerican.com/a...es-of-horses1/
Scientists have long studied the best ways to train and treat domesticated horses, but they largely ignored the behavior of free-ranging horses. Recent research has begun to fill that gap.
-Observations from long-term studies of wild horses show that the conventional, male-centric view of their power dynamics is wrong.
-In fact, females often call the shots, employing tactics such as cooperation and persistence to get their way.
Wild Horses of the Great Basin: Social Competition and Population Size. Joel Berger. University of Chicago Press, 1986. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...1988.tb04172.x
The Importance of Ethology in Understanding the Behavior of the Horse. D. Goodwin in
Equine Veterinary Journal, Vol. 31, No. S28, pages 15–19; April 1999.
“Domestication has provided the horse with food, shelter, veterinary care and protection, allowing individuals an increased chance of survival. However, the restriction of movement, limited breeding opportunities and a requirement to expend energy, for the benefit of another species, conflict with the evolutionary processes which shaped the behavior of its predecessors. The behavior of the horse is defined by its niche as a social prey species but many of the traits which ensured the survival of its ancestors are difficult to accommodate in the domestic environment. There has been a long association between horses and man and many features of equine behavior suggest a predisposition to interspecific cooperation. However, the importance of dominance in human understanding of social systems has tended to overemphasize its importance in the human‐horse relationship. The evolving horse‐human relationship from predation to companionship, has resulted in serial conflicts of interest for equine and human participants. Only by understanding the nature and origin of these conflicts can ethologists encourage equine management practices which minimize deleterious effects on the behavior of the horse.”