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Alright everybody, I've got a couple questions for you about what I'm doing wrong with my riding. You see, I have this problem with bad heels and lower leg movement at the posting trot and canter. However, I only have these problems with stirrups. You see, when I'm riding without stirrups, I have no problems with getting decent heel depth and keeping my lower legs still (even at a posting trot). I wish I could post a video, but I don't have one of me riding without stirrups. I also don't have the problem with my lower leg at the sitting trot either, but I also wrap my lower leg around the horse's barrel during it and keep more tension to keep my lower leg still. So, I guess my questions are:
1) Are my lower legs supposed to be completely loose during posting trot, or does there need to be some tension in them to keep them glued to the horse's side?
2) What am I doing wrong so that my heels are down when riding without stirrups, but I cannot for the life of me keep them down when I pick up my stirrups? ANY suggestions are greatly appreciated!
 

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Are your stirrups adjusted too long?

Have you tried playing with the length to see if that helps?
 

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1) Are my lower legs supposed to be completely loose during posting trot, or does there need to be some tension in them to keep them glued to the horse's side?
Neither! there should never be tension in them, nor should they be wiggling around loose, think more of a gentle hug, just keeping them still, quiet and connected.

2) What am I doing wrong so that my heels are down when riding without stirrups, but I cannot for the life of me keep them down when I pick up my stirrups? ANY suggestions are greatly appreciated!
I second @beau159 check your stirrup length, the concentrate on the feeling you have when riding no stirrups and try and recreate, do not force the feeling, think lengthening through the heel.
 

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If you're riding too long you'll be trying to reach for them even if you aren't consciously doing it. Its a mistake that a lot of people starting out in dressage make - they seem to think they should automatically lengthen their stirrups and you might be doing the same. Opt for a more AP/GP length if you are.
When you're riding bareback you shouldn't be wrapping your legs around the horse to stick on - no stirrups and bareback, as an exercise is all about improving your balance, deepening your seat and not relying on the stirrups to be pedals. You don't want the sort of tension created by gripping the horse with your lower legs
Work on your balance and your thigh and core strength and your legs will usually sort themselves out
 

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Elle, 1997 Oldenburg mare
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If your legs feel okay without stirrups, but you lose your stirrups when you do have them, you're probably gripping up with your leg. It's common and it's fixable.

When riding without stirrups -- I know I'm going to be speaking against a lot of coaches here, but bear with me -- don't try to keep your heel down. Use your seat and the backs (but not the insides) of your thighs to stabilize your seat.

Pushing your heel down is really only useful when you do have stirrups, because a deep heel helps turn your stirrups into a set of "shocks" that exponentially absorb impact and any shifts in balance. When you don't have stirrups, driving your heel deep has no useful mechanism and just tenses and lifts your leg. And that tension and lifting is likely why you bounce and lose your stirrups when you do have them.

When you do your no stirrups work, don't think about your leg below the knees unless you're applying your calves as an aid. Just let them hang. Use your seat and thighs to feel and follow the movement. If you think about your seat as your butt and thighs being "slotted" onto the horse, I find it helps to loosen up your hips and lower your centre of gravity. Helps you use your body in the right way.

Another way to think about it that I have found helpful: let the bounce of any movement move up in the same direction of your thigh bones. If the bounce moves through the length of your femur, your body flows with it. Whereas, if you let it push against your bum you WILL bounce around.
 
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