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Yes, you can teach a gaited horse to trot. You should have a separate cue for the trot than the gait. Something to keep in mind is that if a gaited horse trots naturally, it could mean that something is wrong. It could be an improper hoof trim or a body out of alignment (chiropractor time). Or, it could be from bad breeding. Usually, though, a TWH naturally trotting is not a good thing.

Yes, you can teach a gaited horse to canter. In fact, many love to canter because it is easier than gaiting. Some have a harder time of it because some (owners) never let them canter, but with practice and time, they can and do canter well.

As for gaited dressage and trotting/cantering with a gaited horse, Jennifer Klitzke's YouTube and Website are good resources.

As for "fairness", it depends. It could be "fair" because trotting is easier than gaiting, so the horse will like that, but first, you must overcome the natural movement and breeding of the horse - which can be rather hard.
If the horse has never trotted before or not that much, the trotting muscles and muscle memory will likely not be there. It'll take a lot of work to strengthen the back and hind-end muscles and a lot of time until the muscle memory develops. For some, this may not come, and gaiting will forever be the "go-to."
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