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Retired breeder
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Speaking as a breeder (retired), breeding the mare back every year is easier on them than if you were to skip years inbetween.
Not all mares fit into the category of being able to be bred on foal heat. I have bred on foal heat with a lot of mares over the years. But to fit into this, the mare should have foaled without any troubles at all. It's a good heat to breed on especially if you want to back her up a month in foaling dates.

As I said in another post, not all mares should be bred, they are not broodmare material, meaning, they are just not quality enough to be bred. The mare that makes it to broodmare status is not one that nothing else can be done with her. Far from it. She should be of outstanding conformation, trainability, breeding, mind and preferably have a record of some sort. Not all mares get the opportunity to be performers. Many are chosen to be broodmares just because of their breeding and conformation. I'm good with that. They they must be as near perfect as you can get.

The process you are talking about is embryo transfer. The mare is bred, typically by AI, then in a few days, the embryo is flushed and put in a surrogate mare. Very expensive procedure, but it's a useful one if the mare is actively competing, or she is unable to carry her own foal.
 
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